November 11, 2018

Age-related changes in biochemical and hematologic variables in Borzoi and Beagle puppies from birth to 8 weeks

Puppie mortality and neonatal deaths are very common at 12% to 30% despite many advancements in the verternarian field. Many neonatal illnesses are hard to catch with only things like dehyrdation and hypotermia sevring as signs of trouble. Blood drawing to test for disease is near impossible due to newbrn's small size and physical examinations can be uncertain and leave room for error. Studies on the biochemcial values of puppies have been done before, only starting at about 22 days old. This leaves about a 3 week gap between birth and the start of testing for hematologic values to change.

This study follows 31 puppies (21 beagles and 10 borzoi) from birth till 8 weeks old. The puppies came from 7 privately owned dogs, who owners consented evaluating the puppies. To keep results as nonaffected as possible, all puppies were "housed individually with [their] mother in stainless steel cages in a temperature  and humidity-controlled room with 12 hours of continuous fluorescent lighting provided daily. All puppies older than 4 weeks were placed out-side in play areas for one hour daily until the end of the study. 

Due to puppies low volume of blood no more than 1 mL of blood was collected from each puppy that weighed at least 200 grams, to prevent hypovelmic shock. Immediately after each collection, the blood was centrifuged  and plasma stored sepeartely at low temperatures for up to 24 hours.  "Biochemical variables measured included concentrations of urea, creatinine, glucose,and total protein and activities of alkaline phosphatase(ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatinekinase (CK)" "Hematologic values were determined using an automated hematology impedance analyzer".(systems that count leucocytes, red cells and platelets in blood, and determine hemoglobin and hematocrit level ) At the end of each week the RI (refrerance intervals) would be determiend for each puppy through and compared to that of an adult dog's RI.

Whiles some data was excluded for far variable results, the average results for the puppies was determined. With the exception of glucose, all variable were hevaily affected by age. "While there was no large differences the  ALT activity, glucose concentration, WBC and platelet counts, and MCHC of the puppies and adults, the values for "CK activity, total protein concentration, RBC count, and HCT" were very different from the adults. In addition to this glucose levels bewteen teh two breeds were vastly different allwoing an average breed model to formed.

In conclusion, similar end results are concluded to other studies done. Age seems to play a large part in the differences bewteen adult and puppy RI's. However, the values given for the healthy puppies were outside of practial bounds of an adult's RI. In addition, due to how little blood can be drawn, some values suc as elctrolyte and calcium could no be measured. We can conclude many of the extreme values found in these puppies due to lack of complete devlopment. An undevloped renal system can lead to high concentration of rrea in the system and an underdeveloped liver may mean a low protein count. During the first 2 monts of puppies' lives changes to biochemical and hematologic values should be watched closely to prevent misinterpreting disease. "Understanding these differences allows the veterinarian to diagnose disease more accurately and may also provide important prognostic information"

Rosset, E., Rannou, B., Casseleux, G., Chalvet-Monfray, K. & Buff, S. Age-related changes in biochemical and hematologic variables in Borzoi and Beagle puppies from birth to 8 weeks. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 41, 272–282 (2012).

Reviewed by Sydnie Dillon, 11/09/2018