Mueller, E. A., C. S. Westfall and P. A. Levin, Environmental pH impacts division and cell size in Escherichia coli, bioRxiv 747808; doi: https// 


Haeusser, D. P. and P. A. Levin (2019) Keeping Replication on Par with Division in Bacillus, Mol Microbiol, in press. Invited Commentary. DOI  PMID: 31254421

Q & A Petra Anne Levin (2019) Curr Biol 29: R395–R402

Si, F, G. Le Treut, J. T. Sauls, S. Vadia, P. A. Levin, and S.  Jun (2019) Mechanistic origin of cell-size control and homeostasis in bacteria, Curr Biol 29:760-1770.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.04.062.  Preprint:

Taheri-Araghi, S and P. A. Levin (2019) One is nothing without the other: theoretical and empirical analysis of cell growth and cell cycle progression, J Mol Biol 431:2061-2067. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2019.04.004 

Mueller, E. A., A. J. F. Egan, E. Breukink, W. Vollmer, and P. A. Levin (2019) Plasticity in Escherichia coli cell wall metabolism promotes fitness and antibiotic resistance across environmental conditions, eLife, 2019;8:e40754 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.40754 PMID: 30963998 

Mueller, E. A. and C. S. Westfall (2019) Blown out of proportion -- The role of ppGpp in balanced metabolism. Small Things Considered Blog, March 11, 2019. Link here.

McAuley, S., S. Vadia, C. Jani, A. Huynh, Z. Yang, P. A. Levin, and J. Nodwell (2019) A chemical inhibitor of cell growth reduces cell size in Bacillus subtilis, ACS Chem. Biol. 14(4) 688-695. PMID: 30848888

Westfall, C. S., A. L. Flores-Mireles, J. I. Robinson, A. J. L. Lynch, S. Hultgren, J. P. Henderson, and P. A. Levin (2019) The widely used antimicrobial triclosan induces high levels of antibiotic tolerance in vitro and reduces antibiotic efficacy up to 100-fold in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02312-18. PMID:30782996


Mueller, E. A. and P. A. Levin (2018) Evolving to End a Toxic Relationship: ADP Ribosylation in Interbacterial Warfare, Cell, 175(5):1182-1184. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.051. PMID: 30445038

Hill, N. S., J. Zuke, P. J. Buske, A-C Chien, and P. A. Levin (2018) A nutrient-dependent division antagonist is regulated post-translationally by the Clp proteases in Bacillus subtilisBMC Microbiol 18:29-43. PMID: 29625553

Wehrens, M., D. Ershov, R. Rozendaal, N. Walker, D. Schultz, R. Kishony, P. A. Levin, and S. J. Tans (2018) Size Laws and Division Ring Dynamics in Filamentous Escherichia coli cells, Curr Biol 28: 1-8.

Westfall, C. S. and P. A. Levin (2018) Comprehensive analysis of central carbon metabolism reveals multiple connections between nutrients, biosynthetic capacity, and cell morphology in Escherichia coli, PLOS Genetics, 14(2) e1007205.


Westfall, C.S. and P. A. Levin (2017) Bacterial Cell Size: Multifactorial and Multifaceted, Invited review for Annual Review of Microbiology, 71: 499-517. PMID: 28886685     DOI: 10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093803

Vadia, S., J. L. Tse, R. Lucena, D. Kellogg, J. Wang, and P. A. Levin (2017) Fatty acid synthesis sets cell envelope capacity and dictates microbial cell size, Curr Biol 27 (12):1757 - 1767.e5 PMID: 28602657 DOI:

Subject of Dispatch in Current Biology, Willis, L. and K. C. Huang (2017) Cell Size: Fat makes cells fat 27(12) R592 -R594  PMID:28633027   DOI:

Vadia, S. and P. A. Levin (2017) Bacterial Size: Can’t escape the long arm of the law. Curr Biol 27:R339-R341. PMID:28486115  DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.03.050.

den Blaauwen, T., L. W. Hamoen, and P. A. Levin (2017) The Divisome at 25: The road ahead, Curr Opin Microbiol 36:85–94  PMID: 28254403  DOI:10.1016/j.mib.2017.01.001 


Arjes, H.A., B. Lai, E. R. Emelue, A. Steinbach, and P. A. Levin (2015) Mutations in the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ highlight the role of GTP binding and longitudinal subunit interactions in assembly and function. BMC Microbiology, 5:209 DOI 10.1186/s12866-015-0544-z.

Levin, P. A. and E. R. Angert, Small but mighty: cell size and bacteria (2015) invited chapter for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives: Size Control in Biology, from Organelles to Organisms. Edited by Drs. Rebecca Heald, Iswar Hariharan, and David Wake, 7(7):a019216. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a019216. PMID:26054743

Land, A.D., P. Hogan, S. Fritz and P. A. Levin, (2015) Phenotypic variation is almost entirely independent of the host-pathogen relationship in clinical isolates of S. aureus, PLoS ONE, 10(6):e0129670. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129670. PMID: 26098551

Vadia, S. and P. A. Levin, (2015) Growth rate and cell size: a re-examination of the growth law, (2015) Current Opinion in Microbiology 24: 96-103. PMID: 25662920

Taheri-Araghi, S, S. Bradde, J. T. Sauls, N. S. Hill, P. A. Levin, J. Paulsson, M. Vergassola, and S. Jun. (2015) Cell-size control and homeostasis in bacteria, Current Biology 25 (3), 385-391PMID: 25544609.

Buske, P. J., A. Mittal, R. V. Pappu, and P. A. Levin (2015) An intrinsically disordered linker plays a critical role in bacterial cell division, Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 37, 3-10. PMID: 25305578.


Arjes, H. A. , A. Kriel, N. A. Sorto, J. T. Shaw, J. D. Wang and P.  A. Levin. (2014) Failsafe mechanisms couple division and DNA replication in bacteria, Current Biology. 24(18): 2149-2155. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.07.055. 

Subject of Dispatch in Current Biology, K. Jonas (2015) Cell Cycle: Once Out, Never in AgainCurrent Biology 24(18): R841-R843DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.07.067.

Land, A. D., Q, Luo, and P. A. Levin (2014) Functional domain analysis of the cell division inhibitor EzrA, PLoS ONE  9(7): e102616. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102616.  (PDF)


Hill, N. S., P. J. Buske, Y. Shi, and P. A. Levin. (2013) A moonlighting enzyme links Escherichia coli cell size with central metabolism, PLoS Genetics 9(7): e1003663.doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.10036. 6. (PDF)

Buske, P. J. and P. A. Levin. (2013) A flexible C-terminal linker is required for proper FtsZ assembly in vitro and cytokinetic ring formation in vivo, Mol. Microbiol. 2:249-263. PMID: 23692518 (PDF)


Chien, A-C, S. K. Zareh, Y. M. Wang and P. A. Levin. (2012) Changes in the oligomerization potential of the division inhibitor UgtP coordinate Bacillus subtilis cell size with nutrient availability, Mol. Microbiol. 86:594-610. PMID: 22931116 (PDF)

Chien, A-C., N. S. Hill and P. A. Levin. (2012) Cell size control in bacteria, Current Biology, 22(9):R340-R349 (PDF)

Hill, N. S., R. Kadoya, D. K. Chattoraj, and P. A. Levin. (2012), Cell size and the initiation of DNA replication in bacteria, PLoS Genet 8(3): e1002549.doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002549. (PDF)

Subject of Research Highlight in Nature Reviews Microbiology, Cellular microbiology: Replication comes in all sizes, Nature Reviews Microbiology 10, 312-313. Doi:10.1038/nrmicro2793. (PDF)

Buske, P. J. and P. A. Levin. (2012) The extreme C-terminus of the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ plays a fundamental role in assembly independent of modulatory proteins, J. Biol. Chem., 287:10945-10957.(PDF)

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