Useful Links

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The Constitution easy-to-use text of entire Constitution, with display adjustable for accessibility and convenience. Includes amendments, with footnotes indicating passages affected by future amendments. Also includes letters of transmittal to and from the Confederation Congress, ratification histories, glossaries, and indices.

from National Archive: page photographs and transcripts of "America's Founding Documents," namely the original Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Declaration of Independence

The Annotated Constitution via Library of Congress -- section-by-section text, annotated with a discussion of major court opinions pertaining to each clause.

The Founders' Constitution -- clause by clause, associated primary documents and early arguments. A free resource courtesy of University of Chicago Press and the Liberty Fund.


The Framing and Ratification

Excellent historical summaries and primary documents:


Presidential and Congressional Election Results

Dave Leip's interactive Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Note that in these maps, red means Democrats and blue means Republican. As the good lord intended.

Historical party divisions at initial election in each Congress: