November 10, 2018

Early Signs of Canine Hip Dysplasia and Other Hip Diseases

 Risler et al., 2009 (Figure 1)

Hip dysplasia and hip osteoarthritis are problems that are common in English Foxhounds, along with many other breeds of dogs. In protecting against hip dysplasia and other hip conditions, early detection is highly important. Thus, a study was conducted to determine if there were radiographic signs that indicated future hip dysplasia or other hip diseases in the first two years of a dog’s life.

 

In this study, English Foxhounds, selected for their high risk of hip dysplasia, along with Labrador Retrievers, Irish Setters (both medium risk) and Greyhounds (little to no risk). The dogs risk of hip dysplasia was determined by PennHIP’s “Distraction Index,” which measures canine hip joint laxity. This scale usually ranges from 0-1, however can be higher than one. English Foxhounds have a DI of .77, and the other breeds were .49,.46 and .22 respectively.

 

There are three scleroses (unnatural hardening of tissue) dogs can have on their femur. The first, called a circumferential femoral head osteophyte, is a band of unusually hard bone around the top of the femur that can erode joint tissue (Figure 1, C). The next is the caudal curvilinear osteophyte, which is a curved line of hardened bone closer to the middle of the head of the femur (A). Lastly, a newly discovered indistinct linear sclerosis, termed the “puppy line” is positioned between the two (B).

 

The subjects were generally evaluated at 17-24 weeks, and then 47-52 weeks for the presence of these scleroses, but the scale ranged from 8 weeks to 110 weeks.  Dogs were ranked on a scale of 0-4 for presence of these scleroses so that statistical analysis could be performed. If and when a subject developed hip dysplasia, it was reported and recorded.  

 

Statistical analysis of the presence of each sclerosis and likeliness of developing hip dysplasia showed no correlation between the presence of the Puppy line and later developing hip dysplasia or any other degenerative joint disease. Furthermore, no relation was found between a dog's DI or occurrence of a femoral head osteophyte and the puppy line. The caudal curvilinear osteophyte was found to be significantly related to the development of hip dysplasia if it was detected at either 24-27 weeks or 42-52 weeks. It was only significant in the left hip for the development of joint disease. The circumferential femoral head osteophyte was found to not be significantly related to the development of hip dysplasia or other hip diseases at 24-27 weeks, but if it was present at 42-54 weeks it was very significant. Lastly, if both the caudal curvilinear osteophyte and the circumferential femoral head osteophyte were present at 24-27 weeks, it was found the dogs were certain to develop hip degenerative joint disease. Thus, the caudal curvilinear osteophyte and the circumferetial femoral can both be used as an early indicator of hip dysplasia or other hip diseases.


 

Risler, A., KLAUER, J. M., KEULER, N. S., & ADAMS, W. M. (2009, February 26). PUPPY LINE, METAPHYSEAL SCLEROSIS, AND CAUDOLATERAL CURVILINEAR AND CIRCUMFERENTIAL FEMORAL HEAD OSTEOPHYTES IN EARLY DETECTION OF CANINE HIP DYSPLASIA. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2009.01509.x

 

Reviewed by Calvin Isley | Nov 10 2018