Style Guide

This document is a guide to the mark-up styles used within pages.

Sections (Heading 2)

Block level elements (A SubTitle)

The title of this page uses a Heading 1 (h1) element.

The secondary heading above uses a Heading 2 (h2) element, which may be used for any form of important page-level heading. More than one may be used per page. Consider using a h2 unless you need a heading of less importance, or as a sub-heading to an existing h2 element. Use the paragraph style drop-down (defaults to "Normal") to change text into a heading.

Heading 3

The heading above uses a Heading 3 (h3) element, which may be used for any form of page-level heading which falls below h2 in the document hierarchy.

Heading 4

The heading above uses a Heading 4 (h4) element, which may be used for any form of page-level heading which falls below h3 in the document hierarchy. It is not intended to be used for paragraph text.

Grouping content

Paragraphs

All paragraphs are wrapped in p tags. Additionally, p elements can be wrapped with a blockquote element if the p element is indeed a quote. Reserve blockquote for quotes.

Horizontal rule

The hr element represents a paragraph-level thematic break, e.g. a scene change in a story, or a transition to another topic within a section of a reference book.


Blockquotes

The blockquote element represents a section that is being quoted from another source.

The first task of the typographer is therefore to read and understand the text; the second task is to analyze and map it. Only then can typographic interpretation begin.

--Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style

If you merely want an indented paragraph with no quote decoration, use the indented paragraph style in the styles drop-down.

Ordered list

The ol element denotes an ordered list, and various numbering schemes are available by selecting the list and choosing a style in the styles drop-down. The default is 1, 2, 3. Alphabetical and Roman are also available. Ordered lists may be nested. Use the indent buttons to nest list items

  1. This is an ordered list.
  2. This is the second item, which contains a sub list
    1. This is the sub list, which is also ordered using alpha
    2. It has two items.
  3. This is the final item on this list.

Unordered list

The ul element denotes an unordered list (ie. a list of loose items that don’t require numbering, or a bulleted list).

  • East Asian Languages & Cultures
    • Chinese
    • Japanese
  • Romance Languages & Literatures
    • French
    • Spanish

Callout Boxes

Callout Box Header This is a right-aligned callout box.  Aren't I pretty?

Callout boxes are floated <div> tags that can be aligned to the left or right. The <div> replaces the default <p> tag, so it is not possible to insert a heading into a callout box using the WYSIWYG. There is a style in the styles drop-down "Callout header" to create the illusion of a heading within a callout box.

Images

In Pages, the value of the alternative text of an inline image is converted into the image caption when the content is viewed. (The captions do not appear while editing.) For best results, enter the wrapping text first and always place your cursor at the start of a heading or paragraph when inserting a floated image (one aligned to the right or left).  For a full-width image, place the image in its own paragraph. If there is no caption on a floated image, make sure to add some vertical and horizontal spacing around the image.

From xkcd.com

No-wrap Image/Text

One common text format is to create a list of paragraphs each associated with a thumbnail image. The no-wrap image with text style can create this effect. Like callout boxes, headings cannot be used within a no-wrap text area since the paragraph is converted into a <div>. However, you may use the "Callout Header" style within no-wrap text areas as well. Example:

Primate Ecology and Conservation Studies of living primates, including the behavior and conservation of lemurs in Madagascar, baboons and chimpanzees in Africa, and monkeys in Central and South America.
Paleontology and Primate Evolution Discovery and analysis of fossil primates from the Paleocene through the Miocene, including sites in the Uinta Basin of Utah and the Turkana Basin of East Africa.

For best results, enter each section of text first with no headers - just paragraphs. Then insert the cursor at the front of each paragraph and insert your image. Align the image to the right or left with horizontal spacing. Highlight each paragraph individually using the p button at the bottom of the WYSIWYG textarea and convert it to a "nowrap image/text" block element. Finally, highlight the text that you want to use as the header and choose "Callout header" from the style drop-down.

Text-level Semantics

There are a number of inline HTML elements you may use anywhere within other elements.

Links and anchors

The link (a) element is used to hyperlink text, be that to another page, a named fragment on the current page (an anchor, e.g. back to top) or an email address (pages@artsci.wustl.edu). When you highlight text and click the link button, these three options are offered in the link type drop-down.

Stressed emphasis

The em element is used to denote text with stressed emphasis, i.e., something you’d pronounce differently.

Strong importance

The strong element is used to denote text with strong importance. Do not apply to headings. Headings already have syntactic importance, and the font we are using for headings is not as attractive when in bold.

Drop cap

Drop caps are often used decoratively at the begining of a paragraph. To use in Pages, highlight the text you want to style and choose "Drop cap" from the styles drop-down. Make sure you have enough text in the paragraph for the drop cap to be attractive.