*Tools to Watch Mechanoperception in Action

Many questions remain about mechanoperception, but we are limited by our ability to measure ion flux and membrane tension in the context of an intact plant tissue. To begin to address this problem, we are developing approaches that allow us to analyze the biophysical response of organelle membranes to cellular osmotic stress from inside the cell. In addition, we have recently initiated a project aimed at developing a set of genetically encoded biosensors that measure and modulate membrane forces such as voltage and tension for use in plant cells. These biosensors may allow the non-invasive, dynamic measurement of membrane forces during pollen tube growth and in the long-distance transmission of electrical signals in response to wounding.