Microelectrode Array

February 24, 2009

Building Addressable Libraries: Site-Selective Suzuki Reactions on Microelectrode Arrays

Libo Hu, Karl Maurer and Kevin D. Moeller

Org. Lett., 2009, 11 (6), pp 1273–1276

A site-selective Suzuki reaction has been developed for use on microelectrode arrays. The reaction conditions employed are similar to those used to achieve site-selective Heck reactions. The reaction can be run with either an aryliodide attached to the surface of the array and an arylboronic acid in solution or with an arylboronic acid attached to the surface of the array and an arylbromide in solution. Both allyl acetate and air are effective confining agents for the reaction. The reactions are compatible with arrays containing either 1024 microelectrodes cm-2 or 12,544 microelectrodes cm-2.


August 5, 2008

Microelectrode Arrays and Ceric Ammonium Nitrate: A Simple Strategy for Developing New Site-Selective Synthetic Methods

David Kesselring, Karl Maurer and Kevin D. Moeller
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130 (34), 11290–11291

Conditions for a site-selective ceric ammonium nitrate oxidation have been developed. The reactions proceed nicely on both 1K- and 12K-microelectrode arrays. The procedure for developing the reactions was very simple and demonstrated that the same reagents used for a solution-phase reaction can be used for a related site-selective reaction on a microelectrode array.


July 25, 2008

Moving Known Libraries to an Addressable Array: A Site-Selective Hetero-Michael Reaction

Melissae Stuart, Karl Maurer, Kevin D. Moeller
Bioconj. Chem. 2008, 19, 1514-1517

A two-step, Michael reaction-based strategy for site-selectively placing molecules by unique electrodes in an addressable microelectrode array has been developed. The strategy is compatible with the use of polypeptide nucleophiles and works with microelectrode arrays having either 1024 electrodes/cm2 or 12544 electrodes/cm2. The chemistry should allow for the transfer of existing molecular libraries to microelectrode array devices for analysis.


May 21, 2008

Building Addressable Libraries: Site-Selective Formation of an N-Acyliminium Ion Intermediate

David Kesselring, Karl Maurer and Kevin D. Moeller
Org. Lett., 2008, 10 (12), 2501–2504

A strategy for site-selectively generating reactive N-acyliminium ion intermediates on a microelectrode array has been developed. The route capitalizes on the use of an electroauxiliary for building a methoxylated amino acid substrate, and then the electrochemical generation and solution phase confinement of acid in order to form the N-acyliminium ion. Keys to this strategy were the stability of an N-α-methoxyalkyl amide to basic reaction conditions and the generality of the electrogenerated acid conditions for conducting microelectrode array reactions in a site-selective fashion.


April 26, 2008

The Use of a Detectable, Mass-spectrometry-cleavable Linker for Quality Control on an Addressable Microelectrode Array

Ceng Chen, Peng Lu, Amy Walker, Karl Maurer, and Kevin D. Moeller
Electrochem. Commun., 2008, 10, 973–976

The synthesis, site-selective placement, and TOF-SIMS cleavage properties of a new, fluorescent linker for attaching molecules to a microelectrode array are reported. The linker was developed to provide a handle for quality control assessment of the microelectrode arrays being used to probe the binding of molecular libraries with biological receptors.


September 3, 2007

Electrochemistry and Umpolung Reactions: New Tools for Solving Synthetic Challenges of Structure and Location

Feili Tang, Ceng Chen, Kevin D. Moeller
Synthesis 2007, 3411-3420

Electrochemistry is a powerful tool for initiating new umpolung reactions. In this paper, two examples are provided. One demonstrates the use of electrochemistry for reversing the polarity of known functional groups and triggering carbon-carbon bond formation. The second demonstrates the use of electrochemistry for reversing the polarity of a chemical reagent, a technique that allows for spatially locating synthetic transformations on addressable chips.


November 24, 2006

Building Addressable Libraries: The Use of a Mass Spectrometry Cleavable Linker for Monitoring Reactions on a Microelectrode Array

Ceng Chen, Gabriella Nagy, Amy V. Walker, Karl Maurer, Andy McShea, and Kevin D. Moeller
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128 (50), 16020–16021

Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS) has been used in conjunction with a mass spectrometry cleavable linker to determine the percent conversion of reactions that were conducted site-selectively on an addressable microelectrode array. When combined with fluorescence techniques for analysis of the reactions, the TOF SIMS experiment provides a means for optimization of both reaction confinement and reaction efficiency on the microelectrode arrays.